Sunday, August 23, 2020

Critical Review of Australian Tax and Transfer System

Question: Depict about the Report for Critical Review of Australian Tax and Transfer System. Answer: A hearty tax assessment framework is viewed as the existence blood of the administration since it gives the indispensable income which the administration requires to scatter its heap obligations. The significance of tax assessment framework in the ongoing past has expanded significantly as the duties of the cutting edge state keep on developing. Subsequently, not at all like the past, the administrations job isn't constrained to giving physical security however needs to guarantee that the residents can appreciate a specific standard of life where certain fundamental prerequisites, for example, food, training, social insurance, cover are dealt with. For the legislature to have the option to release the above duties, it is basic that the duty framework ought to be driven by four key standards to be specific value, viability, straightforwardness and proficiency (ACOSS, 2015). It is vital that the job of tax assessment isn't restricted to being income raising measure for the national government yet it in reality much extensive. Through the tax assessment framework, the administration plans to satisfy a large group of destinations which can be effortlessly deciphered by directing a through and basic audit of the expense and move strategy predominant in Australia. Furthermore, this would likewise fill another need for example to build up a superior comprehension of the duty suggestions and any overburden present in the assessment and move framework (Treasury, 2013). Subsequently, the different blemishes in the present framework would be recognized and different measures would be proposed in order to guarantee that the four standards are better agreed to and the approach destinations are better figured it out. The center motivation behind the tax assessment framework is to go about as a wellspring of income to government for meeting its consumptions. Notwithstanding, charge income should be brought up in a way that doesn't punish guilty pleasure in exercises prompting age of salary. This should be possible by guaranteeing that a specific area must not worry about a disproportional tax assessment concern. Subsequently, it is necessitated that the tax assessment laws must experience a survey on intermittent premise in order to guarantee that the concessions gave are fittingly focused on and not manhandled while the occurrences including tax avoidance should be limited (CoA, 2015). Notwithstanding, while at the same time keeping up higher consistence from citizens, the focal standards of a powerful assessment framework must not be digressed from. One more goal of the duty framework is to upgrade the productivity of assignment of scant assets in order to create most extreme yield. The asset designation is modified through the utilization of differential duty rates with respect to utilization and creation of explicit merchandise and ventures. The viability of differential assessment at changing the basic utilization examples of clients has adequate exact proof to demonstrate that items and administrations that have generally lesser taxation rate will in general be devoured in more amounts. Utilizing tax assessment, it is workable for the legislature to advance products related with positive externality while disheartening utilization of those merchandise which have negative externality related with their utilization. This procedure whenever proceeded for an adequate period of time will in general acquire variety the examples of creation and utilization which is slanted towards products with lesser taxation rate. This successful ly prompts an expanded allocative proficiency since the nation produces products advantageous for the general public (Treasury, nd). Likewise, another goal of the tax collection framework is to cause salary redistribution. The dynamic direct tax assessment framework is declaration to this as the rich need to pay charge at higher rates when contrasted with poor people. Therefore, the salary gathered through assessment from rich individuals is used for conveyance of essential help administrations to the discouraged and poor area which improves their standard of life. Consequently, there is no denying the way that salary redistribution is accomplished through tax collection as the clients of the different government plans are poor people and defenseless populace who in any case come up short on the buying capacity to profit the essential enhancements (CoA, 2015). The Australian exchange framework guarantees that no area of the populace is denied from the use of legitimacy products because of absence of buying power or any inability. Consequently, help is given to such individuals through money installments which give them chance to lead a standardized and prosperous life. It is assessed that practically half of the spending acquired through the exchange framework is used for people who are either resigned or handicapped. Further, as the populace turns out to be progressively matured sooner rather than later, the significance of move framework is ready to improve which puts forth a substantial defense for upgrading their general effectiveness (CoA, 2008). Since the time the start of the most recent decade of twentieth century, the assessment incomes have surgse as shown underneath. The fundamental purpose behind this pattern is the presentation of huge number of duty especially the GST alongside Capital Gains (1985) and defense of assessment framework through the presentation of ITAA, 1997(ACTU, 2011). On one hand, the expansion in income was sure news however this came at the expense of upgraded intricacy in the assessment guideline framework. This was caused as the different charges have their separate arrangements with respect to concessions, edge esteems. The impact was that that the citizens couldn't unravel the unpredictable guidelines which prompted an ascent in the general consistence cost. The examination of unpredictability Australian assessment framework in correlation with other unmistakable countries of both created and creating world is introduced beneath (ACTU, 2011). The ascent in consistence costs causes because of rising intricacy of the duty move framework is featured beneath (CoA, 2015). The rising multifaceted nature in the expense framework is apparent from the above chart and the way that there is a plunge in the consistence costs at the turn of the decade suggests that the legislature is additionally mindful of the degree of the issue and subsequently taking dynamic measures for improvement of duty framework. Be that as it may, these measures have kept on staying inadequate. Indeed, even now, colossal wholes of citizens cash is being squandered for consenting to burden guidelines which rather should be utilized in a beneficial way in order to fuel monetary development particularly in the present occasions when the financial development is dull. Furthermore, the multifaceted nature of the framework likewise gives motivations to explicit conduct on part of the citizens which brings about wasteful distribution of assets. A well-suited outline of the above is as tax collection approaches towards reasonable lodging which have missed the mark regarding the expressed goals. Rather these have end up being counter-profitable with a large group of concessions and exclusions of installment of charges and in this manner as opposed to making it simpler to purchase a house, it has prompted a free for all which has prompted the development of a land bubble. This free for all is driven by the well off people and HNI (High Net Individuals) who will in general utilize private property as a venture as well as a component to limit their assessment obligation (ACOSS, 2015). In such manner, the IMF has upheld that the duty discounts must be utilized sparingly as they are in infringement with the standards of value and productivity of a hearty expense framework. In spite of this, Australia gives liberal assessment consumption as delineated in the diagram beneath which attracts a correlation with other created countries this respect (Thornbill, 2015). It is obvious from the above conversation that the expense concessions reached out to the lodging division is prompting twists and subsequently earnest justification is required. This would cause an adjustment in the citizens conduct and consequently guarantee that the duplicate strategy targets of the assessment and move framework are met. Further, lodging charge consumptions prompts a one-two punch for the administration as on one hand, the incomes are being lost because of concessions while then again, since these concessions are not arriving at poor people and powerless, thus government needs to offer more prominent help as lease help which is extending the financial shortage (ACOSS, 2015). It is evident from the contentions recorded over that duty and move framework set up is wasteful and overburdened. Thus, a total upgrade of the tax assessment framework is required whereby accentuation is on four fundamental charges to be specific corporate duty, individual personal expense, charge identified with private utilization and furthermore lease charge gathered on use of monetary assets claimed by the state. These four assessments have been chosen as a significant bit of the duty income is earned through these charges as it were. Expenses other than the over ones should keep on existing just if a specific social/financial issue is being tended to, for example, the tax assessment on cigarettes. Different duties which don't have a place with the above will be nullified as these lead to an upgrade in the multifaceted nature of the tax assessment framework without noteworthy gradual income (Treasury, 2013). For pulling in increasingly outside speculators, it is required that there must be a decrease in the corporate duty rate to 25% over some undefined time frame. Additionally, the attribution approach utilized for profits likewise should be changed so as be in a state of harmony with the worldwide practices in such manner (BCA, 2014). To compensate for the misfortune in charge through the decline in corporate expense rate, justification of duty uses is the need of great importance. Also, for expanding the female support rate in labor, there should be a checked improvement in the kid care administrations and accentuation ought to be on making these moderate. Plus, for upgrading the workforce assorted variety, defenseless areas ought to be given help as installments for supporting the salary (CoA, 2008). Likewise, there is a solid case for defense of individual annual duty so that there is more extensive inclusion and basic guidelines. Further, an

Saturday, August 22, 2020

Mental Lexicon Definition and Examples in English

Mental Lexicon Definition and Examples in English In psycholinguistics, a people disguised information on the properties of words. Otherwise called a psychological word reference. There are different meanings of mental dictionary. In their book The Mental Lexicon: Core Perspectives (2008), Gonia Jarema and Gary Libben endeavor this definition: The psychological dictionary is the intellectual framework that establishes the limit with regards to cognizant and oblivious lexical movement. The term mental dictionary was presented by R.C. Oldfield in the article Things, Words and the Brain (Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, v. 18, 1966). Models and Observations The way that a speaker can intellectually discover the word that he/she needs in under 200 milliseconds, and in specific cases, even before it is heard, is verification that the psychological dictionary is requested so as to encourage access and retrieval.(Pamela B. Faber and Ricardo Mairal Usã ³n, Constructing a Lexicon of English Verbs. Walter de Gruyter, 1999)The Dictionary Metaphor-What is this psychological word reference, or vocabulary, as? We can think about it as like a printed word reference, that is, as comprising of pairings of implications with sound portrayals. A printed word reference has recorded at every section a way to express the word and its definition as far as different words. Along these lines, the psychological vocabulary must speak to probably a few parts of the importance of the word, albeit definitely not similarly as does a printed word reference; in like manner, it must incorporate data about the way to express the word albeit, once more, most likely not in a similar structure as a standard dictionary.(D. Fay and A. Cutler, Malapropisms and the Structure of the Mental Lexicon. Phonetic Inquiry, 1977)- Theâ humanâ word-store is frequently alluded to as the psychological dictionaryâ or, maybe more generally, as theâ mentalâ lexicon, to utilize the Greek word for word reference. There is, in any case, generally little likeness between the words in our brains and the words in book word references, despite the fact that the data will here and there cover. . . .[E]ven if the psychological dictionary ends up being incompletely sorted out as far as starting sounds, the request will absolutely not be clearly in sequential order. Different parts of the words sound structure, for example, its consummation, its pressure design and the focused on vowel, are on the whole liable to assume a job in the course of action of words in the mind.Furthermore, consider a discourse mistake, for example, The occupants of the vehicle were safe. where th e speaker probably intended to state travelers instead of occupants. Such missteps show that, dissimilar to bookâ dictionaries, humanâ mental dictionariesâ cannot be sorted out exclusively based on sounds or spelling. Which means must be thought about also, since people on a regular basis mistake words for comparable implications, as in Please give me the tin-opener when the speaker needs to separate a nut, so probably implied nut-crackers.(Jean Aitchison, Words in the Mind: An Introduction to the Mental Lexicon. Wiley-Blackwell, 2003) An Australians Mental LexiconEven with hard yakka, youve got Buckleys of understanding this dinkum English sentence, except if youre an Aussie.An Australian has no trouble understanding the above sentence, while other English speakers may battle. The words yakka, Buckleys, and dinkum are in the jargon of most Australians, that is, they are put away as passages in the psychological vocabulary, and along these lines an Australian approaches the implications of these words and can thusly grasp the sentence. On the off chance that one had no psychological dictionary, correspondence through language would be precluded.(Marcus Taft, Reading and the Mental Lexicon. Brain research Press, 1991)

Friday, August 21, 2020

Polygamy in Islam

Presentation Marriage is one of the significant parts of the Islamic culture. The Islamic law permits Muslim men to rehearse polygamy, yet it doesn't energize it. The Islamic guidelines express that a Muslim man can wed a limit of four ladies. On the other hand, Muslim ladies don't reserve the option to wed a few men. Muslim men in polygamous relationships ought to be benevolent to their women.Advertising We will compose a custom paper test on Polygamy in Islam explicitly for you for just $16.05 $11/page Learn More According to the Quran, a man ought not wed numerous ladies in the event that he can't deal with them. Comprehensively, lion's share of Muslim men are monogamous. The act of Islamic polygamy isn't homogeneous in all nations. For example, numerous men in Saudi Arabia practice polygamy. Be that as it may, Islamic polygamy is extraordinary in Egypt. In Iran, polygamy is very mainstream in the open country. Shia Muslims practice polygamy more than the Sunni Muslims. Polygamy h as been a quarrelsome issue among Muslim people since they have various perspectives about it. This article contends that polygamy ought not be energized in light of the accompanying reasons. Laws of Islamic Polygamy A Muslim man can get polygamous under the accompanying conditions. To begin with, â€Å"if a man has a high sex moxie, he can wed more ladies to abstain from submitting sexual offenses†. Second, he ought to have assets, for example, land and cash. Third, he ought to be honest and mindful. Fourth, he ought to be familiar with Islamic laws. Last, he ought to have great administration abilities since it is very hard to comprehend social debates in polygamous relationships. Disservices of Polygamy The previously mentioned necessities are significant on the grounds that they guarantee that men give enough social and financial help to their families. In any case, numerous Muslim men in polygamous relationships can't satisfy every one of these necessities. Inability to satisfy the previously mentioned necessities regularly prompts numerous difficulties. In the contemporary world, polygamy is progressively getting disagreeable because of monetary limitations. For instance, food instability is endemic in many pieces of the world. Henceforth, it is hard for some men in polygamous union with give enough food to their enormous families.Advertising Looking for paper on social investigations? How about we check whether we can support you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Inadequate food and lack of fundamental needs regularly prompts numerous squabbles in polygamous relationships. In addition, numerous rich men in polygamous relationships become poor since it is costly to keep up a major family. There are numerous social difficulties in polygamous relationships. Therefore, numerous Muslim ladies hate polygamy. Initial, a lady regularly builds up a low confidence when her better half weds another lady. For instance, a lady whose spouse weds an other lady without her assent and legitimate reasons is probably going to be discouraged. Second, ladies consistently need social help in polygamous relationships. For example, dominant part of men regularly give their new spouses much consideration and forsake the old ones. This frequently prompts passionate issues and competition in polygamous relationships. In reality, ladies in polygamous relationships frequently create mental issues, for example, misery on the grounds that their spouses don't invest enough energy with them. Besides, youngsters in polygamous families regularly become indiscipline because of absence of appropriate parental direction. Instances of physical and psychological mistreatments are visit in polygamous relationships than in monogamous ones. Men in polygamous relationships like manhandling their spouses since they have numerous ladies. Numerous Muslim ladies reprimand polygamy since it empowers male centric society in the family. Ordinarily, men become leg itimate in polygamous relationships. They don't permit their ladies to take an interest in significant dynamic procedures in the family. For instance, a few men wed numerous ladies without speaking with their spouses. Also, numerous ladies in polygamous relationships don't have capacity to control family assets, for example, land. Thus, absence of legitimate dynamic regularly prompts quibbling, brutality, and envy in polygamous relationships. Also, polygamy can prompt the spread of explicitly transmitted ailments, for example, HIV/AIDS. Focal points of Polygamy Despite the various weaknesses of polygamy, it has the accompanying focal points. Polygamy can empower a man to have kids if his first spouse can't conceive an offspring. In such a circumstance, a lady can permit her better half to wed another lady to empower them have children.Advertising We will compose a custom article test on Polygamy in Islam explicitly for you for just $16.05 $11/page Learn More Polygamy can keep men fr om participating in sexual offenses. Polygamy can be energized if a lady can't satisfy her family jobs because of inability and sick wellbeing. For instance, a wedded lady who is experiencing an interminable illness can urge her significant other to wed another lady to help her family. End This exposition has talked about the act of Islamic polygamy. It has uncovered that a Muslim man can wed a limit of four ladies, yet he ought to be caring to every one of them. In addition, a Muslim man should be monetarily steady on the grounds that a polygamous family requires numerous assets. In any case, numerous Muslim men can't follow the principles of Islamic polygamy. This regularly prompts massive enduring of ladies and kids in polygamous families. In this manner, the deficiencies of polygamy exceed its preferences. Thus, polygamy should possibly be supported if there are veritable motivations to rehearse it. Works Cited Ameenah, Abu and Bilal Philips. Polygamy in Islam. Riyadh: Internati onal Islamic Publishing House, 2005. Print. Nurmila, Nina. Ladies, Islam and Everyday Life: Renegotiating Polygamy in Indonesia. London: Taylor Francis, 2009. Print. Youtube. Four Wives and One Husband †Polygamy in Iran. 9 Feb. 2013. Web. This paper on Polygamy in Islam was composed and put together by client Joslyn Carver to help you with your own investigations. You are allowed to utilize it for research and reference purposes so as to compose your own paper; in any case, you should refer to it as needs be. You can give your paper here.

This reflective essay is centred on pain assessment

This intelligent exposition is fixated on torment appraisal With the end goal of the contextual analysis I expect to utilize Gibbs(1998) model of reflection as this model is clear, exact taking into consideration depiction, examination and assessment of the experience, at that point prompts the expert to detail an activity intend to improve their training in future(Jasper, 2003). Wilkinson (2007) recognizes appraisal as the main period of the nursing procedure in which a medical caretaker utilizes their insight and abilities to communicate human mindful. It is imperative to pick a sorted out and methodical methodology when minding out an evaluation that upgrades your capacity to find all the data expected to completely comprehends someones heath status (Alfaro-Le Fevre,2004) .This can be accomplished by acquiring your data structure clinical record and nursing graphs by physical assessment of the patient and furthermore conversing with understanding and their families(Wilkinson,2007). The utilization of target information is progressively useful in gathering data when the patient is ventilated and calmed, as they are frequently in the basic consideration setting, and this should be possible by looking at the patients crucial sign, circulatory strain, pulse, temperature and blood results (Bulman and Schutz 2004). I have picked torment evaluation in post-usable ventilated patient. I have worked in ICU for a long time during this time I have breast fed many post-usable ventilator patients who were on persistent imbuement of tranquilizers and analgesics. A considerable lot of them gave indications of lacking help with discomfort and related difficulties. Having attempted this module I further taught myself in this field of nursing evaluation I presently know, or rather have an improved information base and comprehension of the various parts of torment appraisal apparatuses and perceive the likelihood that I have presumably breast fed a lot more patients who were exhibiting side effects of deficient absense of pain and related inconveniences. Given an expanded mindfulness and information I have increased through instructing, research and ebb and flow writing on this theme I presently, additionally perceive the significance of this evaluation practice specifically comparable to the ventilated, non -conveyed patients in ICU. As indicated by International Association for the Study of Pain (IASP,1979) torment is depicted as terrible tangible and passionate experience related with genuine or potential tissue harm. Clinically torment is whatever the individual says the person in question is encountering at whatever point the person says it does (Mc Caffery 1979) .Appropriate agony evaluation is critical to torment the executives. Patients self-report is the highest quality level of torment appraisal. Anyway torment devices that depend on verbal self-report may not be suitable for utilizing non-verbal ventilated quieted patients in ICU. Torment appraisal apparatus utilized in our basic consideration setting depends on a numerical agony rating score from 0-4, a score of 0 being no torment at all and 4 being the most noticeably terrible torment at any point experienced. There is likewise a visual simple scale for patients who experience issues conveying, they can demonstrate by taking a gander at the graph and pointing at either the glad face that has no torment or a progression of faces indicating various phases of torment (index three). These apparatuses were picked by the particular agony care medical caretakers working for the trust. The instruments are supported as they furnish medical caretakers with a speedy, simple appraisal. They are utilized broadly all through the trust to give congruity of torment assessment.Both of these devices have demonstrated effective by and by and are bolstered by the writing as being dependable and exact practically speaking. Anyway they rely incredibly upon the patient having the option to communicate or discuss verbally with the specialist .Using these techniques for torment evaluation isn't precise on calmed patients with modified cognizant level. In nonverbal patients the utilization of social or physiological pointers are unequivocally suggested for discovery of agony (Jacobi et al 2006). The patient in basic consideration may encounter torment from numerous sources. Alongside physical torment, mental factors, for example, dread, nervousness and rest aggravations may assume a noteworthy job in patients by and large agony experience (Macintyre and Ready 2002). Urden et al (2010) states, torment can be intense or interminable, sensations are distinctive according to its starting point. Intense torment length is short compares to the recuperating procedure, runs between 30 days to a half year. Ceaseless torment endures more than 3 to a half year and can either or not related with a sickness. Substantial agony is all around restricted sharp, intense torment emerging from skin, muscle, joints. Instinctive agony alludes to the profound, not well restricted emerging from an organ. Nociceptive torment happens when aggravation animates torment receptors ( Urden et al 2010). Agony experienced in basic consideration patients are generally intense and has numerous starting points . Mr. Smith a multi year old man of honor admitted to ICU following Laparotomy for little gut puncturing and fecal peritonitis. Mr Smith was cardiovascularly insecure and couldn't be extubated following medical procedure because of optional sepsis. He was getting an imbuement of Propofol and Fentanyl to keep him agreeable and give absense of pain. His clinical notes uncovered his past clinical history of past Cholecystectomy for nerve bladder stones and biliary obstacle. I was doled out to nurture him on his second day in ICU. During handover the past staff part revealed that Mr. Smith turned out to be disturbed and hypertensive not long after he was repositioned to his side. Mr. Smith was given a bolus portion of Propofol implantation and the pace of Infusion expanded. While doing the Patient appraisal I saw Mr Smith is anxious and not agreeable with the ventilator. Blood vessel Blood Gas (ABG) performed which demonstrated Mr. Smith is hypo ventilating. In the interim Mr. Smith turned out to be increasingly upset with raising resistance with ventilator and critical increment in his Mean Arterial Pressure (MAP) which was being checked consistently by the blood vessel line and transducer. He was indicating facial frowns and moving his furthest points fretfully. I attempted to console him by conversing with him, reorientating him to time, spot and individual, disclosing to him that he is sheltered. Adam and Osbourne (2005) recognizes that basically sick patients regularly require help with adapting to a considerable lot of the burdens like physical distress, detachment, dread of torment and passing. By utilizing methodologies like convey mindful and understanding and give data more than once and in adequate detail for the patient and so forth causes the patient to adapt to the pressure. In any case, rehashed consolation and reorienting has not made any upgrades in his present status. Torment is a significant issue in basic consideration and its identification is a need. Torment appraisal is crucial to identify torment (Urden 2010). Pooler-Lunse and Price(1992) underscores that basically sick patients who can't convey viably are at high danger of experiencing torment. Ineffectively controlled agony can pressure the thoughtful sensory system leaving powerless patients in danger of inconvenience and can bargain recuperation and contrarily influence both dreariness and mortality(Puntillo et al 2004, Dracup and Bryan-Brown 1995).Mr Smith was ventilated and because of the impact of tranquilizers his degree of awareness was adjusted. In basic consideration factors modify verbal correspondence is mechanical ventilation, organization of narcotic specialists and the patients change in level of awareness (Hamill-Ruth R J, Marohn L 1999 ,Kwekkeboom K L, Herr K 2001,Shannon K, Bucknall T 2003). The outcomes of untreated intense torment in fundamentally sick patients remember increments for catecholamine and stress hormone levels which are potential reasons for tachycardia, hypertension, expanded oxygen necessities and diminished tissue perfusion (Blakely and Page 2001, Hamill-Ruth and Marohn 1991). Mr Smith was progressively hypertensive and tachycardia. Regardless of giving expanded oxygenation Mr.Smith was hypo ventilating due to resistance to the ventilator. Marshall and Soucy(2003) recognizes tumult is a typical issue in fundamentally sick patients and has been demonstrated to be related with lacking torment the executives. Disturbance can have genuine results with tolerance expelling access lines trading off their oxygen needs without anyone else extubating (Cohen et al 2002). Following conversation with the medical caretaker responsible for the move it was obvious that Mr. Smith was giving social indications of agony. There were no different clear reasons regarding why he had become traded off with his ventilation.When I moved toward the clinical group concerning Mr.Smiths expanding tumult and resistance to ventilation I was told to give a bolus of propofol and fentanyl and to build the pace of propofol and fentanyl until Mr Smith was considered medicinally sensible. I was chosen to build Mr.Smiths ventilatory help. Following the treatment Mr Smith turned out to be considerably more steady, he turned out to be less tachypoenic was synchronizing with the ventilator; his circulatory strain was inside adequate cutoff points and checking in sinus musicality. The clinician didn't survey Mr Smith for indications of insufficient torment the board. Shockingly because of hypoventilation and resistance to mechanical ventilation, Mr Smith must be stayed on elevated levels of ventilation and expanded degrees of narcotics for the following not many hours underlining proof by Pooler-Lunse and Price(1992), the physiological entanglements related with torment including Pulmonary intricacies and expanded heart outstanding task at hand just as wretchedness and uneasiness and expanded long stretches of clinic stay(Desbians et al 1996).Upon further reflection I ought to have noted Mr Smiths fomentation related with lacking relief from discomfort. Had I been educated in this field Mr.Smiths fomentation and physiological indications of fretfulness and facial scowls would have incited me to complete a point by point torment evaluation. Had there been a conduct torment evaluation scale on the unit where I work that may have promp

Saturday, July 4, 2020

Stock And Bond Analysis Finance Essay - Free Essay Example

Capital Market is the market that facilitate buying and selling of securities such as stocks shares and bonds or debentures. It is a place where business enterprises and governments raise their long term funds. The two major functions of capital market are liquidity and pricing securities. Capital Market consists of EQUITY MARKETS or STOCK MARKET, which provide financing through the issuance of shares, and enable the subsequent trading thereof and DEBT MARKETS or BOND MARKET, which provide financing through the issuance of bonds, and enable the subsequent trading thereof. The main difference between the two markets is the amount of risk and the return involved with stock and shares. Equity or stock market is governed by high risk and return, while debt market is a bit secured than the equity market. There are two types of capital market i.e. Primary market and Secondary market. Primary market: It is that market in which shares, debentures and other securities are sold for the first time for collecting long-term capital. This market is concerned with new issues. Therefore, the primary market is also called NEW ISSUE MARKET. In this market, the flow of funds is from savers to borrowers (industries), hence, it helps directly in the capital formation of the country.à ƒâ€šÃ‚   The money collected from this market is generally used by the companies to modernize the plant, machinery and buildings, for extending business, and for setting up new business unit. Secondary Market: The secondary market is that market in which the buying and selling of the previously issued securities is done. The transactions of the secondary market are generally done through the medium of stock exchange. The chief purpose of the secondary market is to create liquidity in securities. Analysis A primary market follows a particular trend, i.e. bull market and bear market. In bull market an investors buy in order to increase capital gains in the future whereas in a bear market an investors anticipate losses thus they are obliged to sell. When the Gross Domestic product and stock prices GDP Price fluctuation is an important tendency of an open market. Secondary market is affected by the change in primary market trend. Analysis and performance of Stocks: Stock Shares or stock are basically the certificate of ownership of the company. These are the one which are traded in the market. There are two types of stock i.e. common stock and preferred stock. Both these stock represent a partial ownership interest in the firm. Preferred stock has certain priority over the common stock they are generally paid fixed dividends. When a company becomes bankrupt they have an advantage of getting paid. Preferred shares do not have nay maturity date thus, they have more interest rate risk than bonds. The stock market is basically the trading groundcapital market investmentin the Companys stocks, Derivatives, and other securities. The trading in stock market is either done physically i.e. through the open outcry or through online transactions. An investor can invest i.e. buy or sell any stock as per his choice. Analysis and performance: The analysis of stock is done by considering the fundamental factors i.e. macroeconomics information, industry news and firms financial statements. Stocks are analysed through two different methods of analysis i.e. Fundamental Analysis and Technical Analysis. Fundamental Analysis: This analysis includes the economic, Industry and company analysis of the stock. Economic Analysis: It is generally noted that the stocks performance depends on the market influence that affects all stock indexes such as Dow Jones industrial average and SP 500 stock indexes. While analysing the stock prices the analyst must consider the economic conditions of the market or country. The investor should decide the time when he can invest in stock as per the economic conditions of the nation. The analyst must consider the systematic risk before investing in the stock as the prices of market are highly influenced by the economic conditions. It is important for an analyst to forecast the short tem as well as the long term economic conditions before making the investment decision. Short term forecast refers to four to five years ahead whereas long term investment refers to more than five years of the forecasting. The Indexes of Economic Indicators: The economic indicators are classified on the basis of cyclic timings i.e. leading, roughly coincident or lagging. The leading indicators are those time series of data that historically research their high points and low points in advance of total economic activity. Roughly coincident indicators reach their peaks at approximately same time as the economy and lagging indicators reached their turning point when economy has already turned in. To consider the economic factors we should also look into the GDP, disposal income, demographic factors and demand as these also affect the stock process. Industry Analysis: The stocks of different industries react differently to the market condition. Cyclic stocks are more likely to get recovered than the defensive stock. Cyclic stocks are tied up closely with the economic condition. For Industry analysis one should use the competitive strategy analysis. The key characteristics in an Industry Analysis is done by analysing past sales and past earnings performance of the industry, permanence, attitude of government towards the industry, labour conditions, competitive conditions, Industry life cycle. These are the several factors used for industry analysis. There are quite a lot of external sources of information for industry analysis such as Federal government, Investment services which includes the data in respect to Standards and Poors; the value line, Forbes, trade publications, funk and Scott index. Company Analysis: For the analysis of the stock prices of a company, it is very important to do study about the company. One need to know the performance of the company from last few years, financial analysis of last few years performance, growth rates of the company for last several years. The investor has to analyse the price to book ratio, return on assets and return on equity. The analysts tried to compute and analyse the financial health of the company by the above factors which will help in analysing the stock and value of the company. The analyst should also analyse and forecast the earnings of the company will helps in analysing the return of the stock. The regression and correlation analysis is also done in forecasting. To analyse the performance of the company trend analysis is used which utilizes regression analysis. Technical Analysis of Stock: Technical analysis looks for the recurring patterns of the stock prices and its movement so that the price of the stock can be analysed. The technical analysis is done through wide range of graphs. The graphs used for technical analysis are as under: Line graphs; Bar graphs; Candlestick graphs; Point and figure charts; Market profiles; Moving averages; Oscillators, such as relative strength indicators, stochastics, and moving average convergence and divergence indicators. Charts of Price Patterns: To analyse the stock movements, technicians rely on charts or graphs of price movements and on relative strength analysis. According to the technicians, the prices of stock follow a trend and the prices of the stock are analysed can be recognized by the same. The prices of stock generally depend on the forces of supply and demand which helps the technicians to predict the likely direction of future movements. The stock is analysed through its trendline, which shows the way in which the stock is moving. If demand is increasing more rapidly than supply and the stock shows successively higher low points, it is in an uptrend whereas lower highs indicate that supply is increasing more rapidly, and the stock is in a downtrend. An investor buys a stock when the stock follows an upward trend. Line chart: Line charts are the simplest form of chart. It consists of the line connecting series of points which indicate the prices of the shares. It can be drawn on linear as well as logarithm scale. Logarithm scales are used when the price use through wide ranges. Bar charts: This chart is used to present the economic data. This chart depicts the periodic low and high and closing prices of the stock or security. There is a vertical line which connects the periods high and low prices, with a cross mark indicating the price at the close of the period. This chart is useful in analysing the daily trading of a particular stock. Point and figure chart: This chart helps in depicting the increase and decrease in price of the stock.   X represents the prices increase and the O represents the price decline. Xs and Os are never shown in the same column. As soon as there is a reversal in the price of the stock the analysts moves to the next column for a new entry. Candle Stick Chart: This chart shows a stocks open, close, high and low in a modified three dimensional format. Horizontal axis depicts the passage of time whereas vertical axis shows the stock price. The white candles in the chart depict stock advances, with black candle representing declines. The thick portion of an entry is called the real body and the vertical line represents the wick. Risk in the Stock Market The stock market keeps fluctuating. The price movements of the stock are random and it required lot of study and analysis to study the performance of the stock. They are quite vulnerable to the economic conditions, speculation, press release, rumors and mass panic. The stock market prices may be very volatile due to the occurrences of the fast market changing events. Analysis and performance of Bonds: Bond A bond is a debt capital market instrument issued by a borrower, who is then required to repay to the lender/investor the amount borrowed plus interest, over a specified period of time. Bonds are also known as fixed income instruments, or fixed interest instruments in the sterling markets. Usually bonds are considered to be those debt securities with terms to maturity of over one year. Debt issued with a maturity of less than one year is considered to be money market debt. There are many different types of bonds that can be issued. The most common bond is the conventional (or plain vanilla or bullet) bond. This is a bond paying regular (annual or semi-annual) interest at a fixed rate over a fixed period to maturity or redemption, with the return of principal (the par or nominal value of the bond) on the maturity date. All other bonds will be variations on this. A bond is therefore a financial contract, in effect an IOU from the person or body that has issued the bond. Unlike sha res or equity capital, bonds carry no ownership privileges. An investor who has purchased a bond and thereby lent money to an institution will have no voice in the affairs of that institution and no vote at the annual general meeting. The bond remains an interest-bearing obligation of the issuer until it is repaid, which is usually the maturity date of the bond. The issuer can be anyone from a private individual to a sovereign government. Bond investment is different from that of stock investment. Bond investment is investing in the debt instrument that is issued by a company or government. The bond investor is actually lending money to the company while in return is promised to be paid the full principal amount plus a fixed periodic payout. The yield on the bond is calculated by putting together the final principal and total payouts received. The yield is the effective interest rate for the tenure of the bond. Analysis and performance of bond: For the analysis of bonds several arithmetical methods are used.   The concepts of simple and compound interest, time vale of money, future and present value of bonds or securities are used to analyze the bonds. Simple and compound interest The value of money what we invest or receive today is not the same as we get in future. The amount of money will be different as the amount invested will bear a rate of interest. Through the different rate of interests given on a particular security using the time value one can analyse the future of the money invested. Simple interest A loan that has one interest payment on maturity is accruing simple interest. On short-term instruments there is usually only the one interest payment on maturity, hence simple interest is received when the instrument expires. FV = PV(1 + r) (2.1) Where, FV is the terminal value or future value PV is the initial investment or present value r is the interest rate. Compound Interest A loan has different interest amount on maturity. The principle amount is compounded and the interest is applied on the compounded amount. FV = PV (1 + r)n where r is the periodic rate of interest (expressed as a decimal) n is the number of periods for which the sum is invested. Time value of Money: The concept of time value of money is applied to analyze the present and the future value of the bond or any other security. Present value can be calculated when the future value of the amount is given along with the rate of interest or vice versa. Bond Indices Bonds are always approaching in maturity, and because some are redeemed early, the set of bonds in a basket changes more frequently than the shares in an equity index. Considering a hypothetical international ten-year benchmark index, as a bond falls to less than say eight years maturity, it may be replaced by the current ten-year benchmark bond. This will have different risk characteristics to the bond it replaced and will trade differently in the market as a result. As the constituents of a bond index have to change more frequently, we may not always be comparing like-for-like when we consider historical index values. There is also the issue of bond coupon payments, which make up a significant proportion of a bonds overall return, and which must therefore be incorporated in the index valuation. Nevertheless bond indices are important for the same reason that equity indices are, and form the benchmark against which fund managers performance is measured. Price of Bond: Price of a bond is equal to the present value of its cash flows. A vanilla bonds cash flows are the interest payments or coupons that are paid during the life of the bond, together with the final redemption payment. It is possible to determine the cash flows with certainty only for conventional bonds of a fixed maturity. So for example, we do not know with certainty what the cash flow are for bonds that have embedded options and can be redeemed early. The coupon payments for conventional bonds are made annually, semi-annually or quarterly. Some bonds pay monthly interest. Therefore a conventional bond of fixed redemption date is made up of an annuity (its coupon payments) and the maturity payment. If the coupon is paid semi-annually, this means exactly half the coupon is paid as interest every six months. The interest rate that is used to discount a bonds cash flows (therefore called the discount rate) is the rate required by the bondholder. It is therefore known as the bonds yield. The yield on the bond will be determined by the market and is the price demanded by investors for buying it, which is why it is sometimes called the bonds return. The required yield for any bond will depend on a number of political and economic factors, including what yield is being earned by other bonds of the same class. Yield is always quoted as an annualised interest rate, so that for a semi annually paying bond exactly half of the annual rate is used to discount the cash flows. The fair price of a bond is the present value of all its cash flows. Therefore when pricing a bond we need to calculate the present value of all the coupon interest payments and the present value of the redemption payment, and sum these. In most markets bonds are generally traded on the basis of their prices but because of the complicated patterns of cash flows that different bonds can have, they are generally compared in terms of their yields. This means that a market-maker will usually qu ote a two-way price at which she will buy or sell a particular bond, but it is the yield at which the bond is trading that is important to the market-makers customer. This is because a bonds price does not actually tell us anything useful about what we are getting. Remember that in any market there will be a number of bonds with different issuers, coupons and terms to maturity. Even in a homogeneous market such as the gilt market, different gilts will trade according to their own specific characteristics. To compare bonds in the market therefore we need the yield on any bond and it is yields that we compare, not prices. A fund manager quoted a price at which she can buy a bond will be instantly aware of what yield that price represents, and whether this yield represents fair value. So it is the yield represented by the price that is the important figure for bond traders. For analysing the yield one need to calculate the current yield, simple yield to maturity, yield to maturity. Price/Yield Relationship Plain vanilla bonds the coupon is fixed, therefore it is the price of the bond that will need to fluctuate to reflect changes in market yields. It is useful sometimes to plot the relationship between yield and price for a bond. A typical price/yield profile is a convex curve. To reiterate, for a plain vanilla bond with a fixed coupon, the price is the only variable that can change to reflect changes in the market environment. When the coupon rate of a bond is equal to the market rate, the bond price will be par (100). If the required interest rate in the market moves above a bonds coupon rate at any point in time, the price of the bond will adjust downward in order for the bondholder to realise the additional return required. Similarly if the required yield moves below the coupon rate, the price will move up to equate the yield on the bond to the market rate. As a bond will redeem at par, the capital appreciation realised on maturity acts as compensation when the coupon rate is low er than the market yield. Yield-to-maturity yield curve The most commonly occurring yield curve is the yield to maturity yield curve. The curve itself is constructed by plotting the yield to maturity against the term to maturity for a group of bonds of the same class. Bonds used in constructing the curve will only rarely have an exact number of whole years to redemption; however it is often common to see yields plotted against whole years on the x-axis. This is because once a bond is designated the benchmark for that term, its yield is taken to be the representative yield. The yield to maturity yield curve is the most commonly observed curve simply because yield to maturity is the most frequent measure of return used. Since market rates will fluctuate over time, it will not be possible to achieve this (a feature known as reinvestment risk). Only zero-coupon bondholders avoid reinvestment risk as no coupon is paid during the life of a zero-coupon bond. The yield to maturity yield curve does not distinguish between different payment pa tterns that may result from bonds with different coupons, that is, the fact that low-coupon bonds pay a higher portion of their cash flows at a later date than high-coupon bonds of the same maturity. The curve also assumes an even cash flow pattern for all bonds. Therefore in this case cash flows are not discounted at the appropriate rate for the bonds in the group being used to construct the curve. To get around this bond analysts may sometimes construct a coupon yield curve, which plots yield to maturity against term to maturity for a group of bonds with the same coupon. This may be useful when a group of bonds contains some with very high coupons; high coupon bonds often trade cheap to the curve, that is they have higher yields, than corresponding bonds of same maturity but lower coupon. This is usually because of reinvestment risk and, in some markets (including the UK), for tax reasons. The coupon yield curve The coupon yield curve is a plot of the yield to maturity against term to maturity for a group of bonds with the same coupon. If we were to construct such a curve we would see that in general high-coupon bonds trade at a discount (have higher yields) relative to low-coupon bonds, because of reinvestment risk and for tax reasons. It is frequently the case that yields vary considerably with coupon for the same term to maturity, and with term to maturity for different coupons. Put another way, usually we observe different coupon curves not only at different levels but also with different shapes. Distortions arise in the yield to maturity curve if no allowance is made for coupon differences. For this reason bond analysts frequently draw a line of best fit through a plot of redemption yields, because the coupon effect in a group of bonds will produce a curve with humps and troughs. The figure below shows a hypothetical set of coupon yield curves, however since in any group of bonds it i s unusual to observe bonds with the same coupon along the entire term structure this type of curve is relatively rare. The par yield curve The par yield curve is not usually encountered in secondary market trading, however it is often constructed for use by corporate financiers and others in the new issues or primary market. The par yield curve plots yield to maturity against term to maturity for current bonds trading at par. The par yield is therefore equal to the coupon rate for bonds priced at par or near to par, as the yield to maturity for bonds priced exactly at par is equal to the coupon rate. Those involved in the primary market will use a par yield curve to determine the required coupon for a new bond that is to be issued at par. This is because investors prefer not to pay over par for a new-issue bond, so the bond requires a coupon that will result in a price at or slightly below par. The par yield curve can be derived directly from bond yields when bonds are trading at or near par. If bonds in the market are trading substantially away from par then the resulting curve will be distorted. It is then necessary to derive it by iteration from the spot yield curve. As we would observe at almost any time, it is rare to encounter bonds trading at par for any particular maturity. The market therefore uses actual non-par vanilla bond yield curves to derive zero-coupon yield curves and then constructs hypothetical par yields that would be observed were there any par bonds being traded. Risk in the Bond Market Capital market risk in the bond market arises due to interest rate changes. There is an inverse relationship existing between the interest rate and the price of the bond. Hence the bond prices are sensitive to the monetary policy of the country as well as economic changes. Summary References

Saturday, June 27, 2020

Be a Good Irishman, and Fight An Analysis of William Butler Yeats’s Play Cathleen Ni Houlihan - Literature Essay Samples

Literary composition was a fueling element in the Irish nationalist movement of the early twentieth century. William Butler Yeats undoubtedly placed himself as a leader in the Irish Literary Revival. While Yeats’s nationalism was not as drastic as some revolutionaries whom he was, perhaps unenthusiastically, acquainted with, he often incorporates a strong commitment to Ireland and her people. To elucidate the motives for Irish independence, Yeats relates the Irish cause to his innate values of love and sacrifice, which envelop a broader propriety. In his play Cathleen Ni Houlihan, Yeats contrasts mundane, materialistic life with the beauty, and the glory of martyrdom, specifically martyrdom for the cause of Irish independence. Yeats suggests that to cede one’s life to a greater cause requires independence and a firm belief in the â€Å"Old High Way of Love (Adam’s Curse).† Through his nationalist play, Yeats not only argues for Irish patriotism, but also for the patriotism to be fueled by romantic ideals.Yeats portrays the motives behind Michael and Delia’s nuptials as materialistic and impure. In Michaels poor Irish family, Yeats shows a desperation for advancement in society. Since Yeats supports the Irish against the tyrannical British forces, he is clearly not against the concept of human betterment in society. However, it seems that Yeats feels that an individual’s progress should not come from sacrifice of pure motives, like love, for the sake of economic advancement. Until Yeats introduces â€Å"The Old Woman† into the story, the conversation between Michael and his extended family is focused on their narcissistic fixation on Michaels wealth. Further compromising the sanctity of marriage, they discuss the wealth Delia will bring Michael in their union. The play begins with the gathering of Michael’s extended family talking about Michael’s aforementioned wedding. However, Michael’s family’s constant association of wealth with marriage leads this jabbering to seem utterly cant-like. Michaels father, Peter, says â€Å"Indeed, I wish I had the luck to get a hundred pounds, or twenty pounds itself, with the wife I married (157)†. Peter’s wife, Bridget, then encourages this materialism by stating how she serves Peter as his wife. She doesn’t suggest adulation or devoted love for Peter, but rather, she states her most significant contribution to the marriage is her physical toil. She says, â€Å"If I brought no fortune I worked it out in my bones†¦while I dug the potatoes, and never asking big dresses or anything but to be working.† The irony in Bridget’s statement is that though she dismisses her immediate materialism by saying that she is â€Å"never asking big dresses.† Her lack of recognition of love creates a sense of eternal materialism, as she sees her sole purpose as work. Yeats suggests that Bridgetà ¢â‚¬â„¢s, and possibly Ireland’s, forced notion of frugality does not free them from any notions of materialism. Bridget’s recognition that she had to sacrifice her materialism for the good of the family demonstrates that materialism is still a value, as relinquishing it seems to be some sort of sacrifice. Peter then enforces further this artificially dual nature of wealth and marriage when he says â€Å"It will be Patrick’s turn next to be looking for a fortune.† Peter synonymous referral of â€Å"wife† and â€Å"fortune† suggests that in this age, Irish society has lost the emotional concept of family. Michael’s family’s inability to state, or even recognize, the righteous qualities of marriage institute an unholy backdrop to Michael and Delias union. Yeats begins the play with a stark sense of materialism. With the materialism comes a mundane society even though it is poor and oppressed. Yeats places Michael at the heart of this society. Given the opportunity for a greater purpose in life, Michael has to choose whether to conform, and struggle like all the rest, or separate, and fight for Ireland. This contrast leads the play to argue staunchly for independence.With the introduction of the â€Å"old woman,† the allegorical nature of the play becomes clear. The old woman represents Ireland because she is poor, weakened, and mistreated. However, even in this depleted state, the woman still has an infallible allure which attracts those who are brave and independent. The woman calls upon the Irish to fight for her, for Ireland, and for themselves. The allegorical theme of the story is that if the old, beaten down Ireland is to gain her independence, she will require the unyielding support of her people. Set in 1798, immediately prior to an Irish revolt aided by the French, Cathleen Ni Houlihan takes place at the heart of England’s enclosure movement, where the English nobility seized the lan d and resources of peasants across Great Britain. Therefore, when the â€Å"Old Woman† says â€Å"My land was taken from me/ My four beautiful green fields (160),† Yeats is not only indicting the English aristocracy in the infliction of misery, but he is also identifying the wandering â€Å"Old Woman† as a symbol for Ireland. Her â€Å"four beautiful green fields† represent the four provinces of Ireland: Leinster, Munster, Connacht, and Ulster. Through the dialogue with the â€Å"Old Woman,† Yeats identifies the Irish cause, while implementing very pro-Irish imagery in order to emphasize the Nationalism of the play. When asked â€Å"what was it put you wandering,† the â€Å"Old Woman† responds, â€Å"Too many strangers in the house (160).† This openly demonstrates Irish nationalism, because Ireland, according to the â€Å"Old Woman,† and Yeats, effectively, have been polluted by the English colonial presence. The  "Old Woman† stresses how long the Irish have struggled for independence: â€Å"I have travelled far, very far; there are few have travelled so far as myself, and there’s many a one that doesn’t make me welcome (159).† The last portion of that sentence demonstrates that Ireland has been abused by â€Å"many a one,† from the Normans to the Vikings to the the English, but also that many of Ireland’s own have rejected this â€Å"Old Woman.† Therefore, they have rejected their own duty to stand up for Ireland. Yet the â€Å"Old Woman† believes that the fight for Irelands independence is still very much alive. She says, â€Å"Sometimes my feet are tired and my hands are quiet, but there is no quiet in my heart. When the people see me quiet, they think old age has come on me and that all the stir has gone out of me (160).† She does not think that Ireland has not grown limp with age. However, the â€Å"Old Woman† then po ints out that when Ireland faces times of difficulty and misfortune, she needs support from her patrons, as well as those abroad, such as the French. â€Å"But when trouble is on me I must be talking to my friends (160).† The â€Å"Old Woman† then states that a love for Ireland is often debilitating to the lover, claiming that â€Å"many a man has died for love of me.† This once again underlines the ardent pride which many have for their Ireland, as well as the repeated persecution of the Irish. The â€Å"Old Woman† then expresses what she needs, and therefore, what Ireland needs, saying, â€Å"It is not food or drink that I want†¦I it is not silver I want†¦If anyone would give me help he must give me himself, he must give me all (162).† Here, Yeats brings the thematic lesson back to materialism, when the â€Å"Old Woman† states that meager economic sacrifices won’t affect the Irish cause, rather, all she needs is the Irishm an â€Å"himself.† The â€Å"Old Woman† is ever mindful of the risks involved in joining the fight for independence, especially the inherent risk of death, proclaiming, â€Å"Many a child will be born and there will be no father at its christening to give it a name (164).† The â€Å"Old Woman† then calls upon the family to join the French in fighting for themselves. Michael, entranced by a mystical allure, agrees doubtlessly, â€Å"I will go with you (163).† The simple manner in which Michael agrees with the Old Woman affirms the simple nature of what she is asking. No long soliloquies are needed for Michael to ponder this decision; he is simply entranced, without realizing the possible drawbacks to such a monumental decision.The ease with which Michael rejects his materialism for a greater truth demonstrates Yeats’ convictions regarding love and martyrdom. Yeats suggests that to fully love is to be utterly absent of hesitation, and that ma rtyrdom, ironically, leads to eternal life. Michael’s fallacious relationship with Delia is the antithesis of what Yeats would call â€Å"The Old High Way of Love (Adams Curse.)† Yet in the story, Yeats contrasts Michael’s marriage with his seemingly uncontrollable pursuit for the â€Å"Old Woman.† And while Michael’s quest to find the â€Å"Old Woman† is not of a romantic journey, the intensity of his emotion mirrors how Yeats feels romantic love should be. In the same quote which the â€Å"Old Woman† lets known that death is a symptom of martyrdom, she argues that martyrdom enables, or even ensures eternal life: They shall be remembered for ever,They shall be alive for ever,They shall be speaking for ever,The people shall hear them for ever (164).By placing these claims directly after successive negative aspects of sacrificing oneself for Ireland, Yeats can effectively dismiss the economic or personal drawbacks to the attainment of eternal presence. Yeats also stresses the independence that martyrdom requires. He believes that a man must be able to reject his mundane social norms and habits, the quality of life which he possesses, and his assured stability. A Man must be willing to throw everything away, if he wants to carry out his unshakable convictions of love and pride, which are more universal qualities which contribute to a valid but relatively local Irish nationalism. The final allegorical image of the play reaffirms that martyrdom for Ireland can make Ireland young again, and therefore, can make Ireland belong to the Irish again. â€Å"Did you see an old woman going down the path? / I did not, but I saw a young girl, and she had the walk of a queen (165).† Yeats suggests firmly that before any action has taken place, Ireland will become strong again. This requires the Irish to be ready to give themselves to Ireland, and once they abandon their materialistic convictions, Ireland will be saved, a t least internally. In William Butler Yeats’s allegorical play Cathleen Ni Houlihan, Yeats argues for marriage be based in the unceasing love of two people above all. He argues that instead of working to improve themselves economically in an oppressed society, the Irish should sacrifice themselves to change their society and return Ireland to her former prowess. He suggests that only through sacrificing oneself for a magnanimous and great cause, can man â€Å"be alive for ever.† However, after living through years of violent struggle with the British, Yeats grew weary of his youthful idealism. Later in his career, as the death of young Irishman began to take its toll on Yeats’ naà ¯ve outlook towards martyrdom, he responded with a poem, â€Å"Man and the Echo† which portrayed his newly cynical commentary on his previous work in â€Å"Cathleen Ni Houlihan†: â€Å"Did that play of mine send outCertain men the English shot.†

Tuesday, May 19, 2020

Argumentative Essay on Gay Rights - 1726 Words

Lauren Corey 17 October 2013 English 101 Professor Tantalo Essay 3 Love Transcends Gender Most people believe that they deserve the rights that they are granted by the government. An upstanding citizen who pays their taxes, serves their community and abides by the law should be afforded the rights of an American. However, not all citizens are afforded equal rights. Gay and lesbians are consistently denied rights that are typically taken for granted by the average American. Specifically, gay and lesbian couples are denied the right to marry even if they are upstanding citizens and are held at an unfair disadvantage solely because of their sexual orientation. This discrimination must stop because gay and lesbian couples are†¦show more content†¦There are an enormous amount of children out there who got left behind by their parents and just need a loving family. Homosexuals can fulfill that need for these deprived children and have no other choice but to adopt because they cannot reproduce by themselves. Studies show that kids raised by homosexual parents are knowle dgeably the same, if not more advanced, than kids raised by heterosexual parents. Giving a child a home is the right thing to do if you’re gay or not, so being a gay parent should not be looked down upon. In addition to the last paragraph, the ones who suffer the greatest repercussions of such prejudices are the children of gay and lesbian couples. Non-biological children of gays and lesbians cannot receive survivor benefits if the deceased partner did not legally adopt them. But how is this related to whether or not homosexuals should be allowed to marry? Same-sex couples do have the privilege of adopting children to begin a family of their own. However, they are often rejected because of their unmarried status. Even if the government does not wish to provide some financial security for homosexual couples, it should not punish the children of such relationships. The government directly discriminates against the children of same-sex marriages by not allowing them the same rights as children who have heterosexual parents. The procreationShow MoreRelatedShould Gays Be Allowed to Marry1476 Words   |  6 PagesThe Prusuit of Happiness! Should gays be allowed to marry? Stacey Dockery PHI103: Informal Logic (GSJ1231E) Instructor Name: Daniel Beteta September 3, 2012 Argumentative Essay on Gay Marriage Marriage: a legally recognized relationship, established by civil or religious ceremony, between two people who intend to live together as sexual and domestic partners. Typically this is between a man and a woman, in love, as they come before their families, to pledge to spend the rest of their lives togetherRead MoreArgumentative Essay on Gay Marriage842 Words   |  3 Pages Wesley King Grammar and Composition lesson 75 Argumentative Essay on Gay Marriage Marriage is the ceremonial binding of two people, male and female, into one couple. Historically, marriage has been the institution when a man and a woman join together with the promise of love, devotion, to always stay together, to be there for each other, to take care of one another and to start a family together. Biblically, marriage has been all the aspects above, but including honoringRead MoreArgumentative Essay About Same Sex Marriage822 Words   |  4 PagesThis Argumentative essay will discuss about the argument of same sex marriage. The contents are: meaning, brief background and thesis statement for the Introduction; for the Body of the discussion is the counter argument; and for the conclusion part: the summary and the restatement of the thesis statement. Same Sex Marriage also known as  gay marriage  or  equal marriage it is marriage between two persons of the same  biological sex  or  gender identity. In the 20th and 21st centuries variousRead MoreThe Pros and Cons of Gay Marriage1370 Words   |  6 PagesThe Pros and Cons of Gay Marriage LP 3: Argumentative Essay Patty Waters NAU Composition II Sue Cochran, Instructor Sunday, March 24, 2013 Abstract This essay covers the pros and cons concerning gay marriage. You will discover some new laws and amendments that are about to happen in our country, and some things that people are against. There are many issues that will be covered from rights and benefits to getting married legally. You will read reports, stories and articles from lawyersRead MoreA Brief Note On Sociological Factors On Clients1666 Words   |  7 PagesCOMMUNITY WORK AND SERVICES ASSESSMENT A – ARGUMENTATIVE ESSAY ~ Australia’s social inclusion policy and its failure to support all minorities, specifically same-sex couples King (cited in Australian Marriage Equality, 2015) stated â€Å"When any society says that I cannot marry a certain person, that society has cut off a segment of my freedom†. This quote from Martin Luther King Jr is as applicable today to legalising same-sex marriage as it was to the civil rights movement and inter-racial marriage overRead MoreWhy Same Sex Marriage Should Be Legal Everywhere1415 Words   |  6 Pagesnot determine whom they can and cannot marry. The only difference between what we consider a ‘normal’ marriage and a gay marriage is simply by the genitalia that we have and the gender we identify as. We need to stop focusing on the gender of couples and start focusing on the love that they share. Same sex marriage should be legal everywhere because it is an issue of equal rights, it does not harm anyone and if love is legal, then so should same sex marriage. Imagine being unable to visit the loveRead MoreRhetorical Essay : Donald Trump V. S. Hilary Clinton1295 Words   |  6 PagesEvaluative Argumentative Essay Donald Trump V. S. Hilary Clinton In the history of The United States of America there have been 44 presidencies. The current election is showing many promising candidates and of them two have made a rather large name for themselves, Donald Trump for the Republican Party and Hilary Clinton for the Democratic Party. When discussing these candidates, although both have their respective positives and negatives, I believe Donald Trump to be the better candidate forRead MoreArgumentative Essay : First Amendment Junkie By Susan Jacoby1042 Words   |  5 PagesAmber Rogers Dr. Kim Loel Argumentative Analysis of the Essay â€Å"First Amendment Junkie† by Susan Jacoby What is a First Amendment Junkie? According to author Susan Jacoby, censorship of any form is wrong. From the beginning of Jacoby’s essay, â€Å"First Amendment Junkie,† it’s obvious where she stands on the topic. Jacoby states that the people who most support the censorship of pornography are women. These women are often self-proclaimed feminists who ironically support the First Amendment. WhileRead MoreThe Toulmin Model Of Argument 11533 Words   |  7 Pagesfor all ethnic groups. Warrant: Equality of access is a basic American value. Backing: Equality before the law is a fundamental right of all Americans. Rebuttal: Affirmative action policies do not result in reverse discrimination because they are only part of a process that attempts to ensure fairness in college admissions. Five Categories of Claims Argumentative essays are based on a claim, which almost always falls into one of the five following categories. 1. Claims of fact. Is it real? Is itRead MoreMental Illness Is A Social Problem Essay1864 Words   |  8 PagesThis essay will analyse the statement â€Å"Mental illness is a social problem†. This essay will discuss the sociological perspective of mental health within the chosen concept of gender. The main aim of this essay is to discuss and debate ‘for’ mental illness is a social problem within the different gender roles. Gender is not only male and female, it also includes lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender and intersexual. In Australia there is a very large community of LGBTI. This concept will be analysed